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Debugging Tips for Database Abstraction

Today I want to talk about database script debugging in large systems. The main problem is that in large applications, it becomes difficult to find the source of rogue queries that, for example, broke in a recent system update.This may not readily apply to most of you, but bear with me: some day it will.

Pretend for a moment you have a database architecture where you have 2 masters (dual replication) and 2 read-only slaves. Now pretend that you have a large application with 100 different pages/scripts. You have 5 web servers with mirror copies of the application. This would be a fairly typical setup for a small, but growing company.

One day, you come into work and find out that you had a bad transaction lock that caused your system to hang all weekend. So you look at the process list and you know what query is causing the problem (because it’s still stuck). The problem is that it looks suspiciously like the queries you’d find on virtually every page in your application. How do you fix this problem? A different (but related) problem is when an update initially executed on one master database server replicated to a slave and got stuck on the slave but executed fine elsewhere. What happened? Which master server got the initial query? This sort of debugging is very difficult to track down without more information such as where the query was initially sent and from what page it originated.

The primary challenge is figuring out which query came from what page in your application. The solution is to add logging straight into your queries. The implemented looks something like this:

//Get the current page or script file
$source = $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'] ? $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'] : $_SERVER['SCRIPT_FILENAME'];

//Replace out any comment tags and add in the database being connected to
$metaData = str_replace(array('/*', '*/'), array('/ *', '* /'), $source) . " ($databaseHost)");

//Escape the query so the URI can't be used to inject data
$metaData = mysql_real_escape_string($metaData);
//Execute the query
$result = mysql_query("/* $metaData */ " . $query, $connection);

This solution inserts a comment into your query that gives you useful information that can be seen when looking at the raw query. MySQL uses C++ style comment blocks (the /* */) which are ignored by the parsing engine. This means you can pass data to the engine which can be useful for debugging. These comments are also replicated down to the slaves, which can be useful when you find a slave having problems with a query that came from a master server. For those of you unaware, the “URI” refers to the full URL that was typed in the address bar to access a page.

But make sure that you correctly sanitize the URI so that somebody can’t arbitrarily end your comment block (with a */) and inject their own nonsense into your query. Also, considering issues like multi-byte character attacks, I don’t even want to take the risk of not further escaping the data with a call to mysql_real_escape_string.

The solution we use at my work logs the web server IP, database server IP, and script path/URI. Other potential ideas are local timestamps, version information, user IDs, and session IDs.

In conclusion, this solution will help you identify the source (and sometimes the destination) of queries that are causing problems. This has been used in our production environment at work often when trying to determine what pages are producing extremely slow queries. This solution should work with any database, although my example is written for MySQL.

Happy debugging!